- Soil preparation:
Shallots thrive in light and sandy soil.
It is afraid of fresh manure and, during maturity, moisture.
It is necessary to provide him with proper compost and natural fertilizers.
Planting is carried out from October to January for gray shallots. For other varieties, they must be planted between February and March, except for the Tunisian shallot that is planted in April, when the temperature is milder.
It is recommended to space the cloves 12 to 15 cm on the line and to separate the lines by at least 25 cm.
If the soil is wet, cultivation can be done on ridges (small mounds of earth).
- The harvest:
The harvest is usually done during the month of July, until the beginning of August, when the leaves are completely dry.
The feet should be torn off and allowed to dry for 1 to 2 days outside, on the ground, except in rainy weather.
For conservation, it is advisable to place them on shelf in a dry and cool place.
- Insects and diseases
The fly plays a harmful role because its larva, appearing between mid-April and the end of May, eats the heart of the pods, rotting thereafter.
To remedy this problem, it is necessary to water 3 times a week with a decoction of tansy during the aforementioned period, as well as to tear out and burn contaminated plans because the larvae move throughout the crop.
Shallots are vulnerable to bacterial diseases, pink root, white rot, late blight, purple spot and thrips.
To avoid or mitigate these problems, do not plant shallots in soil that has been used in previous years for the cultivation of other plants of the genus Allium, plant only clean and healthy seedlings or cloves, and observe good hygiene.
Grease is also a disease of shallots, the leaves turn yellow and the bulbs rot during vegetation.
The solution is only preventive and consists of respecting a good crop rotation and banning fresh manure.
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